Notes for Contributors to
Markers Style Guide
he Association for Gravestone Studies was incorporated as a
non-profit corporation in 1978 as an outgrowth of the Dublin Seminar
for New England Folk life. The first volume of Markers, the
Association's scholarly journal, appeared in 1980 and has been
published annually since 1988.
The subject matter of Markers is defined as the analytical study of gravemarkers, monuments, tombs, and cemeteries of all types and
encompassing all historical periods and geographical regions.
Markers is of interest to scholars in anthropology, historical
archaeology, art and architectural history, ethnic studies, material
culture studies, American studies, folklore and popular culture
studies, linguistics, literature, local and regional history,
cultural geography, sociology, and related fields. Articles
submitted for publication in Markers should be scholarly,
analytical, and interpretive, not merely descriptive or
entertaining, and should be written in a style appropriate to both a
wide academic audience and an audience of interested non-academics.
Please note that articles on death and dying in general or on other
aspects of death-related material culture would not normally fall
within the journal's scope unless clearly linked to the study of
gravemarkers and cemeteries. Particular cemeteries may form the
basis of study if there is a focus on the markers, monuments, tombs
and other aspects of material culture found within, and if the
purpose of the article is more than simply a non-analytical history
or description of the cemetery. Memorials (even if located outside
cemeteries) also may be appropriate topics if analyzed in the
context of memorial styles and traditions both inside and outside
cemeteries. If in doubt, please consult with the editor prior to
submitting an article. For illustration of these general principles,
prospective authors are encouraged to consult recent issues of Markers. For a list of contents of all issues of
Markers, see the
Authors are encouraged to send a query letter (email preferred)
outlining a project before sending a manuscript. Queries and submissions to Markers should be sent to:
June Hadden Hobbs
Boiling Springs, NC 28017-1345
email@example.com fax: 704-406-3921
Please submit an original and three copies of the ms. (including
three sets of photocopied illustrations) via regular mail. Mss.
and photocopies will not be returned. If you send photographs that
you wish to have returned, please include a SASE. Submissions should include
originals of any accompanying photographs or other illustrations
(see below for specifics). Most articles in Markers run between 2500
and 6000 words (i.e., ten to twenty-five 8 1/2 x 11 double-spaced
pages, including double-spaced endnotes and any appended material).
NOTE: Longer articles may be considered if they are of exceptional
merit and if space permits. Please consult with the editor prior to
preparing such an article for submission.
Should the article be accepted for publication, a final version of
the text, a 150-word abstract, and a biographical statement (2-3
sentences) should be submitted to the editor in both hard copy and
as an electronic submission (via CD, diskette, or e-mail
attachment). Consult with the editor if you have any questions.
Within a short time after the article is accepted, authors must also
submit, in electronic form, a list of addresses of local or regional
libraries, historical societies, museums, and other institutions
that might be interested in purchasing the issue of Markers in which
the authorís article appears.
Regular volumes of Markers are scheduled to appear annually
in June or shortly thereafter. No deadline is established for the
initial submission of a manuscript, but the articles scheduled for
publication in a given volume of the journal are generally
determined by the chronological order of their acceptance and
submission in final form.
In matters of style, manuscripts should conform to the rules and
principles enumerated in the most current edition of The Chicago
Manual of Style. A Markers style sheet will be available soon.
Notes, whether documentary or discursive, should appear as endnotes
(i.e., at the conclusion of the article); documentary notes should
conform in format to the models found in the chapter entitled "Note
Forms" of The Chicago Manual of Style. In manuscript, notes should
be typed double-spaced and appear following the text of the article
and before any appended material. Separate bibliographies are not
desired, though bibliographical material may be included within one
or more notes. Any acknowledgments should be made in a separate
paragraph at the beginning of the note section.
Appendices should be placed following the endnotes and clearly
labeled and titled (e.g., Appendix I: [name], Appendix II: [name],
etc.) Create them as separate files.
Again, the prospective author is encouraged to consult recent issues
of Markers for examples of these principles in context.
Markers is a richly illustrated journal. The journal encourages
prospective authors to submit up to twenty photographs plus
appropriate pieces of line art. Illustrations should be carefully
chosen so that each illustration materially enhances the article's
value through visual presentation of points under discussion in the
text and does not merely provide a duplicate illustration of a
point. Photos should be 5 x 7 or 8 x 10 black and white glossy
prints of medium-high contrast, and should be of the highest quality
possible. Although black and white is the preferred format,
exceptionally high quality color glossy prints may be submitted.
High-quality digital photos are also acceptable. Maps, charts, diagrams, and other line art should be
rendered as carefully as possible so as to enhance presentation. A
separate sheet should be provided listing captions for each
illustration. It is especially important that each illustration be
numbered and clearly identified by parenthetical reference at the
appropriate place in the text, e.g. (Fig. 7).
Submissions to Markers that meet the parameters set forth above are
sent by the editor to members of the journal's editorial advisory
board for review and evaluation. Every effort is made to conduct
this process as quickly as possible. When comments have
been received from all reviewers, the author will be notified of the
publication decision. If an article is accepted, suggestions for
revision may be made and a deadline for submission of a finalized
manuscript established. All accepted articles will be carefully
edited for style and format before publication.
Authors are responsible for understanding the laws governing
copyright and fair use and, where appropriate, securing written
permissions for use of copyrighted material. Generally, if
previously copyrighted material of more than 250 words is used in an
article, written permission from the person holding the copyright
must be secured and submitted to the editor. Permission must be
obtained from persons who have supplied photographs to the author,
and credit to the photographer or library should be provided in
captions or an acknowledgment statement.
Copyright is normally given to the Association for Gravestone
Studies, though requests for permission to reprint are readily
accommodated. Offset copies of published articles are not provided
to authors; each contributor, however, receives a complimentary copy
of the volume.
STYLE and FORMATTING GUIDE for
PART I: MANUSCRIPT FORMAT
PART II: GUIDE TO PUNCTUATION, USAGE, AND MECHANICS
PART III: ENDNOTE FORM (Chicago Manual of Style)
PART IV: ILLUSTRATIONS, CAPTIONS, AND TEXT REFERENCES
PART I: MANUSCRIPT FORMAT
1. Double-space throughout, including endnotes and indented long
2. Set all text for "left justify" except title/author and any
headings or other items you specifically want to be centered. Do NOT
set for an even right margin.
3. Use ENDNOTES, NOT FOOTNOTES.
4. Use superscript numbers (no periods) for endnote numbers in
endnotes if your software allows. Otherwise just use the default
form automatically supplied by your word-processing program . Note
numbers in text should appear at the end of sentences (except when
this placement would create confusion). If several items in a
sentence need to be referenced, consolidate references, in order,
into a single endnote.
5. Provide a list of captions and any appendices as separate files.
PART II: GUIDE TO PUNCTUATION, USAGE, AND MECHANICS
Follow the guidelines below for punctuation and style. For general
questions regarding punctuation, grammar, and stylistics, please
consult a recent edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
1. Active voice: Use active voice instead of passive voice whenever
2. First Person:
Use first person instead of third-person references
to yourself as the writer:
3. Apostrophes: Form the possessive of most singular and plural
nouns by adding 's (EXCEPTION: for singular and plural words already
ending in s that do not add an additional s sound, add only an
Form the plural of letters, numbers, and numerals by adding s. Do
not use an apostrophe to form the plural. (Exception: to prevent
confusion, use an apostrophe with lower case letters.):
(Note that house style calls for using italics also to denote
letters and numbers under discussion, as when analyzing a carver's
4. Capitalization: (See additional details in the Chicago Manual of
a) capitalize names of buildings, cemeteries, and monuments, etc., (Hurlbert
Monument, Mount Auburn Cemetery)
b) most historical or cultural period names are lowercased except
for proper nouns and adjectives (Baroque period, classical period,
colonial period, romantic period; but Hellenistic period, Victorian
era) or to avoid ambiguity (Bronze Age, Enlightenment, Middle Ages,
c) In titles of works in English, capitalize the first and last
words and every other word except for prepositions, articles, and
coordinating conjunctions unless the writer did otherwise or the
style manual requires otherwise. See the Chicago Manual for a more complete listing of
capitalization rules for titles. For foreign languages, generally
follow the publisher's usage.
d) United States/U.S.--Spell out when used as a noun; abbreviate
when used as an adjective.
After their move, they spent a lot of time adjusting to the United
The graves of U.S. servicemen killed in Europe . . .
5. Commas: Use a comma before the "and" that introduces the last
word/phrase in a series:
The icon, the
epitaph, and the border
The icon, the
Use a comma before and after the state when giving locations by city
6. Dashes: Use two hyphens to make one dash. Do not use spaces
before or after a dash (Many word-processing programs will
automatically convert two hyphens into an em-dash.):
The carver--unaware that an apprentice was giving his plans to a
rival--was astonished to find his design in Alabama.
The carver - unaware that an apprentice was giving his plans to a
rival - was astonished to find his design in Alabama.
Use no apostrophe when referring to the years in a decade:
Use "CE" (Common Era) and "BCE" (Before the Common Era) instead of
"AD" and "BC" except when quoting another author who uses the
earlier style. "CE" precedes the date, but "BCE" follows it:
Write dates American style, not European style (note comma before
and after year):
February 13, 1948, was . . .
13 February 1948 was . . .
8. Ellipsis Periods: Use three
spaced periods to indicate an omission within a quote. Use four
spaced periods if the omission includes the end of a sentence. Do
NOT use ellipsis periods at the beginning or end of a quotation.
"In the four quarters of the globe, who . . . looks at an American
picture or statue?" wrote the Reverend Sydney Smith in 1820 in the
Just four years earlier a newspaper writer invited outsiders to an
Independence Day celebration in Kenton with these words: "Kenton
comes nearer representing the old west than any other town we know
of . . . The Old West is fast disappearing."
9. Hyphens: Hyphenate compound words used as a single
adjective before a noun:
(Exception: do not hyphenate compounds formed
with an adverb ending in -ly plus an adjective or participle,
or the names of ethnic groups when used either as nouns or
Compounds with well-, ill-, better-, best-, high-, little-, lesser-,
low-, etc., are hyphenated when they precede the noun unless
the expression carries a modifier: well-known man; he is well known;
high-quality work; very high quality work. When they follow
the noun they modify, they are not hyphenated: He was well known.
10. Italics: Use italics instead of underlining for titles
of separately published works, foreign words, and
words/letters/numbers referred to as words/letters/numbers.
Cemeteries and Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture
Cemeteries and Grave markers: Voices of American Culture
In general, spell out words for numbers from one to ninety-nine
and all numbers that begin a sentence. Use numerals for numbers 100
Exceptions: a) round numbers (hundreds
of graves, thousands of burials, etc.) are usually spelled out; and
b) when many numbers are used within a paragraph, rendering all as
numerals will usually make reading easier, especially if the reader
will be thinking of totals, comparisons, etc., as in a sentence such
as " More than 300 of the gravestones are decorated with various
devices, including 172 cherubs, 44 death's heads, and 9 hourglasses;
81 gravestones have 2 or more images." (Note: Most readers glaze
over quickly after a sentence or two like this. It is generally
preferable to subordinate numerals in such sentences by putting the
numbers of images in parentheses AFTER the word-hourglasses (9),
death's heads (44)-and to put a lot of numerical information in the
form of charts or graphs Also, the second clause could be rendered
as a separate sentence reading, "More than a quarter of the
gravestones have two or more images.")
Note: Avoid numerals to open sentences (spell out number or reword
to get the number out of first position).
Hyphenate two-word numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine:
12. Punctuation with Quotation Marks:
Commas and periods always go inside closing quotation marks; colons
and semicolons always go outside; question marks and exclamation
points may go inside or outside depending on whether the question or
exclamation mark refers to the quoted material alone or to the
entire sentence in which the quote is embedded.
PART III: ENDNOTE FORM (Chicago Manual of Style)
FIRST REFERENCE: Book
Book: Single author, 1st edition:
1 Philippe AriŤs, Western
Attitudes Toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present,
trans. Patricia M. Ranum (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1974): 85-107.
Book: Single author, 2nd or later edition:
55 Lorado Taft, The
History of American Sculpture, 2nd ed. (New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1924), 104.
Book: 2 or 3 authors
6 Cynthia Mills and Pamela H.
Simpson, Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art, and the
Landscapes of Southern Memory. Knoxville: University of
Tennessee Press, 2003), 123-124.
Book: More than 3 authors (give only 1st author's name followed by a
comma and "et al."-see "Book: editor or translator" entry below.)
Book of anonymous/unknown authorship:
1The Picturesque Pocket
Companion and Visitor's Guide, through Mount Auburn (Boston:
Otis, Broaders and Company: Boston, 1839), 75.
Book: editor or translator
1The Journals and
Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. William H.
Gilman, et al., 16 vols. (Cambridge and London: Harvard University
Press, 1960-1982), 4:335.
Chapter in an edited collection:
11Blanche Linden-Ward, "Strange but Genteel Pleasure Grounds:
Tourist and Leisure Uses of Nineteenth-Century Rural Cemeteries," in
Cemeteries & Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture, ed.
Richard E. Meyer (Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1992),
FIRST REFERENCE: Dissertation or thesis
1Jan M. Seidler, "A
Critical Reappraisal of the Career of William Wetmore Story
(1819-1895), American Sculptor and Man of Letters" (Ph.D. diss.,
Boston University, 1985), 21-33.
FIRST REFERENCES: Journal Article
1Frederic A. Sharf, "The
Garden Cemetery and American Sculpture: Mount Auburn," The Art
Quarterly 24 (Spring 1961): 80-88.
11Laurel K. Gabel, "Ritual,
Regalia and Remembrance: Fraternal Symbolism and Gravestones,"
Markers XI (1994): 1, 25.
Two or three authors:
6 Shannon Nichol, Karen May,
and Erik Lees, "Are 'Ecocemeteries' a Viable Option? Pros and Cons,"
Landscape Architecture 92:12 (Dec. 2002): 9-12.
More than three authors:
7 Christoph Frank, et al., "Diderot,
Guiard and Houdon: Projects for a Funerary Monument at Gotha I,"
The Burlington Magazine 144:1189 (May 2002): 213-22.
FIRST REFERENCE: Newspaper Article
7 Leslie Perrin Wilson, "H.
W. S. Cleveland Provided Vision for Concord's Sleepy Hollow," The
Concord Journal, 21 November 2002, 14.
FIRST REFERENCE: Website (webpage name, website title, full
address followed by a period)
7 "Don," Find-A-Grave,
SHORTENED FORMS FOR SUBSEQUENT REFERENCES (pick a key phrase or
group of words-not necessarily the first words--from the title):
1Kasson, Marble Queens,
ARTICLE or DISSERTATION:
13 Gabel, "Fraternal
1Seidler, "William Wetmore
PART IV: ILLUSTRATIONS--CAPTIONS AND RELATED TEXT REFERENCES
1. Use "Fig." (figure) to refer to all illustrations (including
maps, photos, and charts) and number consecutively.
2. In your text, all references to illustrations should use "Fig."
followed by the figure number, all in parentheses, generally at the
end of a sentence but before final punctuation mark. Adding "See"
before "Fig. X" is usually redundant. See additional examples of
concise form in issues of Markers):
3. Captions should be brief and need not be
sentences. For gravemarkers and monuments, they should include the
name of the buried person, the death date if known/readable, and
location of the marker. Use a period after the figure number. (Note:
It is usually redundant to include the word "gravemarker" or "
4. Captions should NOT introduce new ideas
but can echo a point made in the text (note too, that in this
example, to add "Maryland" after "Frederick County" would be
redundant as all the gravemarkers in this article are found in
Fig. 4. Crudely executed lettering on John
Walker gravestone (1830), Fairmount Cemetery, Libertytown, Frederick
County, which appears to reveal Hammond's inexperience.
Welcome | News & Notes
| Join the AGS |
Store Directory | Publications
External Resources |
AGS Conferences |
AGS Awards | Research Clearinghouse |
More Information |
Contact Us | Site Map
^ Top of Page